It’s difficult that whenever we try to pursue advancements in medicine, animals are used for the sake of humanity’s health.

Published by

Sep 18, 2022


Struggling with a similar assignment? Don’t know where to start? Don’t have time to work on this? Get a high-quality paper written for you from scratch – PLAGIARISM FREE, guaranteed to get you a good grade. To get started, please click on the Submit Your Instructions at the bottom of the page.

Thomas Gennarelli’s research on human head injuries involving adult baboons was one that involved many ethical issues. These issues arose after the Animal Liberation Front (ALF) raided the laboratory at the University of Pennsylvania Medical School in 1984 and stole 32 audiovisual tapes that recorded the experiments. Seventy hours of the tapes were condensed into 25 minutes showing the abuses that occurred during these experiments. This was brought to light after People for Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) brought this up with Congress and ABC News. In defense, the researchers asserted that the baboons were sedated so that they wouldn’t feel pain upon injury, but the baboons struggled to free themselves indicating otherwise. Other disturbing instances included the use of profanity, performing unsterile surgery, and making fun of conscious baboons with broken arms ( Pence,2017).
It was later found that Gennarelli was guilty of 9 charges:” lack of anesthesia, inadequate supervision, poor training, inferior veterinary care, unnecessary multiple injuries to the same animals, smoking, statements in poor taste around animals, improper clothing, and overall “material failure to comply with the Public Health Service Animal Welfare Policy” (2017).
One ethical issue that stands out from this case is animals’ perception of pain. The sentence of baboons is uncertain, but even if they’re not as aware of their pain perception and memory as humans, this doesn’t mean that they suffer any less. Informed human subjects are much aware of the purposes and risks of a study, so they know what to expect. The consent process does not occur with animals and is unaware of the reason for their use in experiments, and thus, this unexpectantly and lack of awareness may impose more suffering on them (Pence,2017)
To model human head injury in baboons seems quite cruel, but many of the medical advances in the past century have happened because of animal research. Without animals, research would have to be done on humans, which would subject them to harm in many experiments ( Pence,2017). We should strive to minimize suffering and treat animal subjects as humanely as possible. Gennarelli’s research focuses on human head injuries, so to minimize pain as much as possible, the researchers should ensure that the baboons are completely sedated.

Pence, G.E. (2017). Medical Ethics: Accounts of ground-breaking cases (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill Education.

There is a specific research study where vaccines that are not approved for humans are used for animal testing purposes. “National and international regulations currently require that new medicines are tested on animals before being licensed for use. Around 5 million animals including mice, rats, fish, chickens, rabbits, dogs, and primates are used across the US for this purpose each year. “ (Medicines & Vaccines,2019). An ethical issue was that there was a degree of suffering physically and emotionally within the animals. What can be done to avoid these ethical issues or to lessen this is to not apply the same practice to other animals as it increases the chances of the degree of suffering to occur in other animals, To lessen pain, they may take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to help cope with the pain.
It’s difficult that whenever we try to pursue advancements in medicine, animals are used for the sake of humanity’s health. It’s clearly obvious that the majority of the world has compassion towards animals and we would want to provide the best quality of life for them as much as possible. While I am saddened that animals are being used in testing and research, they serve an essential purpose, and most medical advancements have happened because of animal testing ( Pence,2017). To ease our moral conscience, we need to determine the necessity of the problem being studied and how useful the information from animal studies is to human studies, as stated in the source you provided (“Medicine and Vaccines,” n.d.). We understand that to test vaccines, it must be done in a living system that is infected with a certain ill-causing agent, and inducing sickness in animals is more acceptable than doing it in humans. Because avoiding harm in humans takes utmost precedence over avoiding harm in animals, we need to do what we can to make animal research as ethical as possible. In addition to the suggestion you made about using NSAIDs, we can also sedate animals so that they’re not conscious to experience any not only physical but also psychological and emotional trauma.
Pence, G.E.(2017). Medical ethics: Accounts of ground-breaking cases (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill Education.
Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. (n.d.). Medicine and vaccines. Retrieved from (Links to an external site.)
Humans have a better quality of life with the use of animals in scientific/medical research. Every day about 25 million mice are used globally in research into the development of treatments for diseases including malaria, heart disease, cancer, and aids (Holden, 2016). Rodents are 80% of our genes and have been described as the “perfect model organism” for human biology (Holden,2016).
Experiments should be used as humanely as possible but that’s not the case. The ethical issue in this research is the pain, distress, and isolation that animals have to go through for an experiment. Humans can have a decision to consent while animals do not. Without animals, research would have to be done on humans which would be subject to harm in many experiments (Pence,2017).
Animals could be replaced in experiments by the use of cultures or test tube-based experiments can be conducted for further research study instead, to avoid ethical issues.
Realistically speaking, I don’t think animals will be completely replaced considering the many advancements we’ve made in medicine and health because of animal research and testing (Pence,2017). I think animals should only be used when absolutely necessary and if the results from the study are likely to contribute to human studies. Otherwise, other alternatives can be used if their results can yield the same level or at least similar results. In addition to the suggestions you made, one alternative to animals being used in research is the use of computer models. Computer models allow simulations that can help predict possible biological toxic effects. Also, many ethical issues revolve around using higher vertebrates, so lower vertebrates, and invertebrates may be used. These organisms offer the advantages of shorter life cycles and simple anatomy ( Doke & Dhawale,2015).
Doke, S.K., & Dhawale, S.C.(2015). Alternatives to animal testing: A review DOI: (Links to an external site.
Pence, G.E. (2017). Medical ethics: Accounts of ground-breaking cases (8th ed.). New York, NY:
McGraw Hill Education.
Tough dilemma, right? If by chance, tomorrow, researchers shared they had a cure for Parkinson’s disease. Thank you to the research they have conducted over the past using monkeys, do you think then that those against animal research would feel differently? Explain.


Need Writing Help? Our writing specialists are here 24/7, every day of the year, ready to support you! Instantly chat with an online tutor below or click here to submit your paper instructions to the writing team.

More than just an assignment.

Explore Now →

Who is this homework service for?

* If you are having a really hard class and want to get through it, then this is for you.

* If you have a medical emergency or someone close to you has a medical emergency and you don’t think you’ll be able to turn your assignment on time, this is definitely a service you could use.

* You can use us if you are having a tough Professor who won’t give you the grades you deserve.

* If you have a tight work schedule and you are getting points deducted for not submitting assignments on time.

* English might not be your first language and you feel like you are being left behind in class because of it.

* If you have a large project coming up and don’t think you have enough time to get it done well, definitely reach out to us.


Super stoked you are checking us out! We would like to help you with your assignment. We just need a few things from you:

* The full assignment instructions as they appear on your school account.

* If a Rubric is present, make sure to attach it.

* Any relevant weekly readings or learning resources.

* Include any special announcements or emails you might have gotten from your Professor regarding your assignment.

* Any templates or additional files required to complete the assignment.

If your assignment is somewhat complex and you need to explain it, please don’t hesitate to reach out to me via live chat. 



Frequently asked questions

How soon can I get my paper done?

It depends with your deadline. If you need your paper completed in 3 hours, we will deliver it in that time. All you need to do is indicate your deadline in our custom order page here. Alternatively, if you are sending us your instructions via email, please be sure to indicate your deadline.

Will it be completely original? I don't want to be caught in a case of Academic Integrity Violation.

We are as paranoid as you are. Maybe even more! And we understand that the greatest sin you can commit in your academic journey is plagiarizing your academic work. To that end, we have made sure that we check and double-check our papers using high quality plagiarism detection tools such as SafeAssign and Turnitin before submitting the paper to you.

Who is my writer? Is he/she a native English Speaker?

All our writers are native English Speakers. That is not to say that ESL writers are not good, we just prefer hiring native writers because we want the very best people working on your paper. This might mean paying a little bit more for your paper as opposed to when you pay a foreign company whose writers are non-native English Speakers.

What if I need revisions? Will your charge additional for this?

Of course not! If you do happen to require a revision on your paper, our team will handle it for you free of charge. Matter of fact, we won’t rest till you are happy with your paper. So, ask for as many revisions as you need, it’s completely FREE!

Will you give me my money back if I don't like my paper?

We have very few instances where we delivered a paper that a client didn’t fall in love with. But if it so happens that you don’t like your paper for any reason whatsoever, we’ll refund your money back no questions asked.

I have more assignments after this, can you help me with those too?

Of course! And what’s even better is that we can reserve a writer permanently to work on your entire class. This comes in handy for projects which build up on each other and where you need just one writer, one writing style.

I got my order information wrong, can I change that?

Yes you can. Just reach out to our support team via email ( or live chat here and they’ll help you change the instructions.

Can I place an order via email instead of going through the order page?

Yes you can. Email Anna at, she’s in charge of our sales team. Alternatively, you can talk to our Live Chat team here and request to speak to Anna.

Trusted by Thousands of Students

Delivering quality assignments since 2007

%d bloggers like this: